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Министр здравоохранения Нидерландов Абрахам Клинк

Абрахам Клинк (Abraham - Ab -Klink) родился в Stellendam 2 нноября 1958.

After completing his secondary education he studied sociology at Erasmus University, Rotterdam, graduating in 1985. In 1991 he was awarded a doctorate in law from Leiden University for his thesis 'Christian Democracy and the State: the Christian Democratic Political Philosophy and its Implications for Constitutional and Administrative Law'.

From 1985 to 1992 Dr Klink worked for the policy institute of the Christian Democratic Alliance (CDA). He subsequently served at the Ministry of Justice, first as a policy officer in the Office of the Secretary-General, then as an adviser to the General Legislation Policy Division, policy coordinator in the Administration of Justice (Development) Department, and finally deputy director of the Administration of Justice Department. In 1999 he returned to the CDA policy institute, this time as director. From 2003 to 2007 he was a member of the Senate of the States General.

Dr Klink has also sat on the board of the association of Protestant secondary schools in Rotterdam.

On 22 February 2007 Dr Klink was appointed Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport in the fourth Balkenende government.

Абрахам Клинк министр здравоохранения Нидерландов

Ганс Хугерворст (Hans Hoogervorst) министр здравоохранения Нидерландов с 27 мая 2003 до 22 февраля 2007

Ганс Хугерворст (Hans Hoogervorst) министр здравоохранения Нидерландов с 27 мая 2003 до 22 февраля 2007

Hans Hoogervorst (19 April 1956, Haarlem) was the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport of the Netherlands between May 2003 and February 2007. His previous positions in the Dutch government include Minister of Finance (2002-2003) and State Secretary (Deputy Minister) of Social Affairs and Employment (1998-2002).

After completing his secondary education, he studied history at the University of Amsterdam, graduating in 1981. He then went on to obtain a Master of Arts degree in international relations from Johns Hopkins University SAIS in Washington, D.C. in 1983.

From 1983 to 1986 Hoogervorst worked as an international banking officer with the National Bank of Washington (Washington, D.C.) and from 1986 to 1987 as a policy officer for international monetary affairs at the Dutch Ministry of Finance. From 1988 to 1994 he was a policy assistant on finance to the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) parliamentary party in the House of Representatives and from 1994 to 1998 a Member of Parliament.

From 3 August 1998, Hoogervorst was State Secretary for Social Affairs and Employment in the second Kok government. On 22 July 2002 he was appointed Minister of Finance in the first Balkenende government. From 16 October 2002 he was also responsible for the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. On 27 May 2003 he was appointed Minister of Health, Welfare and Sports in the second Balkenende government. In this position, Hoogervorst introduced a basic health insurance policy, mandatory for all registered inhabitants, but executed by private insurers.

On June 8, 2007, it was announced by the fourth Balkenende cabinet that Hoogervorst will succeed Arthur Docters van Leeuwen as director of AFM, the Dutch financial market supervisory organization.

Эльз Борст (Els Borst) министр здравоохранения Нидерландов с 22 августа 1994 по 22 июля 2002

Эльз Борст (Els Borst) министр здравоохранения Нидерландов с 22 августа 1994 по 22 июля 2002

Els Borst attended the Barlaeus Gymnasium of Amsterdam graduating in 1950. The same school was attended by People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) leader Frits Bolkestein, who was one class below her. Following graduation she studied medicine graduating in 1958. She took special courses on pediatric medicine and immunohaematology when she as assistant-physician at the "Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis" in Amsterdam. In 1965 she started writing her thesis, while working as a medical scientist at Utrecht University, researching immunohaematology. In 1972 she was promoted Ph.D. at the Universiteit van Amsterdam (University of Amsterdam) for her thesis on the development and prevention of rhesus immunisation. In 1969 she has already become the head of the Bloodbank of the University Hospital of Utrecht, and in 1976 she became medical director of that hospital. In 1986 she left this position to become vice-chair of the Health Council, which she combined from 1992 with a position as professor in "evaluating medical actions" at the University of Amsterdam. In the Health Council she chaired the committees on immunisation, genetics and medical ethics.

She had also been politically active. In 1968 she joined D66, and was active as a rank-and-file member. In 1976 for instance, when D66 had lost nearly all its members and performed particularly bad in the polls, Borst was a volunteer in the promotion and revitalization campaign of the party, led by Jan Terlouw.

Borst also held many positions in the medical world, she was chair of the College for Blood Transfusion, chair of the Committee on Research in Medical Ethics and wrote for several scientific journals in the field of medicine.
Political life. In 1994 Borst became minister of Health for D66 in the First cabinet of Wim Kok. She was a specialist minister. As a minister Borst is known for two things, for championing many progressive causes in medical ethics and for trying to reform the medical system to better cope with the aging population.

In 2001 she implemented the most important law of her career, de Wet Toetsing levensbeeindiging en hulp bij zelfdoding (the law on the legal review of euthanasia and assisted suicide). Euthanasia in the Netherlands was legalized under special conditions, concerning the carefulness of the actions of the physician.

In other medical ethical question, she also showed her progressive leanings:

* In 1994 she enforced the rights of patients towards their doctors, giving them the right to information and privacy, and the explicit right to refuse treatment.
* In 1996 she implemented the law on organ donation, all Dutch citizens would be asked when they turned eighteen, whether they wanted to become organ donor.
* In 2001 she signed the law on foetal tissue, which legalized the scientific use of foetal tissue for medical research applications, if the parents agreed on the issue, and if the foetal tissue was the result of an abortion or miscarriage.
* In 2002 she prevented the practice of xenotransplantation, which would be prohibited, until the risks to humans was not clear yet.
* She also defended the Dutch system of soft drugs.

She also faced problems preparing the Dutch medical system for the aging of the population. An important part of her reforms of the medical system was the plan to integrate all health insurance (public and private), so that all citizens would pay the same amount for the same coverage. Although her ministry's budget was drastically increased during this period, she still had to limit the budgets of the hospitals. This led to a problem of long waiting lists for simple medical procedures. From both the political left and the political right she was criticized for what was seen as her mismanagement of the medical system. Pim Fortuyn put it dramatically when in an Elsevier column he wrote that "Borst is worse than bin Laden", because she had caused more deaths than the September 11, 2001 attacks.

In the 1998 elections Borst succeeded Hans van Mierlo as lijsttrekker for D66. She was parachuted by the party's leadership in a press-conference where Van Mierlo announced her candidacy with the words: "It has become a girl, and we call her Els." Words many parents use to announce the birth of their new born child. Although Borst lost the elections -her party lost ten of its twenty-four seats- she remained the ministry of Health, and even became deputy-prime-minister. During the formation talks Borst served as fractievoorzitter of D66 for one week (7 May - 14 May 1998), and as formateur.

After the parliamentary inquiry in the El Al Flight 1862 (Bijlmer Plane Crash), Borst faced a motion of no confidence in June 1999. The inquiry committee had concluded that Borst and her ministry of Health did not react well to the health problems of survivors of the disaster. The motion was rejected by parliament after an eighteen hour long debate.

After a 2001 interview in the NRC Handelsblad Borst also faced another motion of no-confidence. In the interview she had said "It has been done" (Dutch: "Het is volbracht") on completing the law on euthanasia. Which according to the Bible are the last words of Jesus, on the cross. The orthodox Protestant parties ChristianUnion (ChristenUnie or CU) and Reformed Political Party (SGP), who had opposed euthanasia were insulted by this. Although the motion was not carried by parliament, Borst made her apologies for those words to parliament.

During her ministry she became member of the Institute of Medicine in Washington and fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh.
Life after Politics. Before the 2002 elections she retired from political life. On 8 February 2003 she became honorary member of D66. Borst still has many positions in public life, serving as member of the Remembrance of the Dead and Liberation Day Committees. She also holds many positions in the medical world, she is chairperson of the board of NIVEL (National Institute for Scientific Research in Medicine) and chairperson of the Federation of Dutch Cancer Patients Organizations and chair of the advisory board of the Brain Foundation of the Netherlands.

Хеди д'Анкона (Hedy d'Ancona) министр здравоохранения Нидерландов с 7 ноября 1989 по 22 августа 1994

Хеди д'Анкона (Hedy d'Ancona) министр здравоохранения Нидерландов с 7 ноября 1989 по 22 августа 1994

Government career. She was the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport and State Secretary for Social Affairs and Employment for issues concerning women's liberation. She also served in the European Parliament and in the first chamber of the Dutch parliament, for the Labour Party.
[edit] Private sector

Outside of government, she is known for starting the feminist monthly Opzij as well as the special interest lobbying group, Man-Vrouw-Maatschappij (Man-Woman-Society), which she co-founded with Joke Kool-Smit.
[edit] Oxfam

From April 1995 through June 2004, d'Ancona was Chairwoman of Oxfam Novib (Oxfam Netherlands), serving also as Vice-Chairman of Oxfam International during part of her tenure.

* 1962 - 1965: TV-producer for the VARA
* 1965 - 1975: Researcher in social geography at the University of Amsterdam
* 1974 - 1981: Member of the first chamber of Dutch parliament, for the Labour Party.
* 1975 - 1981: Director of Centrum Beleidsadviserend Onderzoek (Cebeon), a company that offers research-based advice to government and non-profit organisations, with Maurice de Hond
* September 1981 - May 1982: Secretary of State, Ministry of Welfare and Employment
* August 1982 - September 1983: Member of Parliament
* 1984-1989: Member of the European Parliament
* 1989-1994: Minister of Welfare, Health and Culture
* 1994-1999: Member of European Parliamen

Элько Бринкман (Elco Brinkman) был министром здравоохранения Нидерландов до того.

карта регионов Нидерландов (Голландии)

Нидерланды делятся на 12 провинций (последняя провинция Флеволанд создана в 1986 году на осушенных территориях), провинции делятся на городские и сельские общины. Провинции имеют выборный орган самоуправления — Провинциальные Штаты, избираемые на четыре года. Во главе Провинциальных Штатов стоит королевский комиссар. Жители общин избирают на четыре года Совет. Его исполнительный орган — коллегия бургомистра и муниципальных советников, возглавляемая бургомистром, который назначается королевой. Также от провинций избираются члены Первой палаты Генеральных Штатов.

Площадь суши, тыс. кв.км
Население, тыс. чел.
Гелдерланд (Gelderland) 5,015 1533,7( 1970 ) 1978,688( 2007 ) Арнем (Arnhem)
Гронинген (Groningen) 2,347 522,4( 1970 ) 573,923( 2007 ) Гронинген (Groningen)
Дренте (Drenthe) 2,655 372,6( 1970 ) 485,986( 2007 ) Ассен (Assen)
Зеландия (Zeeland) 1,796 310,3( 1970 ) 380,548( 2007 ) Мидделбург (Middelburg)
Лимбург (Limburg) 2,169 1012,4( 1970 ) 1127,637( 2007 ) Маастрихт (Maastricht)
Оверэйсел (Overijssel) 3,340 932,9( 1970 ) 1116,402( 2007 ) Зволле (Zwolle)
Северный Брабант (Noord-Brabant) 4,949 1819,5( 1970 ) 2418,698( 2007 ) Хертогенбос ('s-Hertogenbosch)
Северная Голландия (Noord-Holland) 2,667 2260,0( 1970 ) 2613,992( 2007 ) Харлем (Haarlem)
Утрехт (Utrecht) 1,359 816,4( 1970 ) 1190,721( 2007 ) Утрехт (Utrecht)
Флеволанд (Flevoland) 1,412 374,394( 2007 ) Лелистад (Lelystad)
Фрисландия (Friesland) 3,357 526,7( 1970 ) 642,169( 2007 ) Леуварден (Leeuwarden)
Южная Голландия (Zuid-Holland) 2,871 2991,7( 1970 ) 3453,756( 2007 ) Гаага (Den Haag, 's-Gravenhage)

Последнее обновление: 14 июля 2010
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